Zovirax contains the active ingredient, which is called Aciclovir (Acyclovir). It is produced in pills with a dosage of 200 mg, 400 mg, and 800 mg and a different quantity per package. The drug belongs to the group of antiviral drugs, synthetic analogs of purine nucleosides, which suppresses the replication of viruses such as Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and chickenpox virus. Zovirax incorporates into the DNA chain due to the enzyme thymidine kinase, a substrate for it, thereby interrupting the replication chain. Its main feature is that it serves as a substrate for the enzyme only in cells infected with the virus.
Absorption from the intestine is partial. For example, when taking 200 mg of aciclovir every 4 hours, a maximum plasma concentration of 3.1 μmol is observed. Half of the drug selectively accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid. It happens due precisely to its selectivity since the Herpes virus localizes in the posterior horns of the spinal cord.
Protein binding ranges from 9-33% regardless of dosage and penetrates many organs and fluids, passes through the blood-brain and plantar barriers. It is also metabolized in the liver to form an inactive substance. It excretes through the kidneys, where 84% excretes as an active substance and 14% as a metabolite. About 2% excretes through the intestines. The half-life in healthy people is 2-3 hours, with renal failure 20 hours and about 6 hours with hemodialysis.
These are mainly primary diseases and the prevention of relapses, including genital herpes infections caused by Herpes simplex virus, types 1 and 2, Varicella-Zoster, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus in people with normal immunity, as well as with severe immunodeficiency in HIV infections.
It is necessary to take Zovirax with water; do not grind and chew them. If grinding is necessary, dissolution in 50 ml of water is allowed. Patients taking Acyclovir should drink at least 2000 ml of water. Food intake does not affect the absorption of the drug.
If the patient missed taking the drug, this person should take it as soon as possible unless there is little time left until the next dose.
Be sure to take an entire course that doctor prescribes. The drug often causes dizziness and drowsiness, so it is strictly forbidden to drive and perform dangerous actions until the reaction to it is clear.
Store Zovirax at room temperature. It is forbidden to use the drug with an expired shelf life.
The drug must be taken based on the results of the identified problem.
For herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, 200 mg is given every 4 hours, except at night. The duration of the course is five days. Also, at the doctor's discretion, it is possible to increase the duration of taking the drug.
The prescription of the drug for relapses and in persons with reduced immunity is prescribed by the doctor for each patient individually.
With normal immunity: 800 mg every 4 hours - 5 r / d. The course is for seven days.
With reduced immunity, intravenous drug treatment is recommended.
For children over two years of age, for herpes simplex treatment, take the exact dosage as adults. Until two years of age, take the drug in dosages two times lower.
For chickenpox, 20 mg/kg 4 times a day, with an adjustment by the attending physician.
With severe renal pathology, taking the drug for diseases caused by herpes simplex should not exceed 200 mg 2 times a day, and for chickenpox, 800 mg 3 times a day is recommended.
When treating elderly patients, the degree of dehydration, neurological disorders should be assessed, and creatine clearance should be monitored. Adverse reactions are reversible after stopping treatment.
• Dizziness, drowsiness, tremors, ataxia, dysarthria, and other neurological disorders; • Increased bilirubin and liver enzymes; • Stomach ache; • Renal colic, renal failure (associated with the excretion of a large percentage of the drug unchanged); • Increased urea and creatinine; • Decreased blood cells (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia); • Allergic reactions (itching, hives, rash, Etc.) • Dyspnea • Fever • Edema • Myalgia • Lymphadenopathy
Special attention should be paid to persons suffering from diabetes mellitus, deficiency of vitamins B and C, and anemia since such patients have an increased risk of developing peripheral neuropathy.
Hypersensitivity to acyclovir; Hereditary lactose intolerance; Hereditary lactase deficiency; Glucose malabsorption syndrome, galactose With extreme caution, it is prescribed for pregnant and lactating women and the elderly, who take large doses or have problems in the functioning of the kidneys.
Joint reception of immunostimulants leads to an increase in the effect of Acyclovir. Probenecid increases the half-life of Acyclovir and a decrease in its clearance, and any neurotoxic drugs increase the risk of developing renal failure.
First of all, consult a doctor immediately. With the use of an increased dose or with a long period of treatment, it can cause a violation of the gastrointestinal tract: nausea, vomiting. It can also lead to neurological disorders, seizures, kidney failure, shortness of breath, agitation, and lethargy.In such cases, the patient should immediately stop taking the drug.
Acyclovir is excreted by renal clearance. Therefore, dose reduction is necessary for patients with impaired renal function. In elderly patients, there is an increased likelihood of a decrease in renal function; therefore, in this group of patients, the possibility of a dose reduction should be considered. Both elderly patients and patients with impaired renal function are at risk of developing neurological side effects and should be closely monitored for signs of these effects. In reported cases, these reactions, as a rule, were reversible after discontinuation of treatment.
Fluid replenishment: Patients taking high oral doses of acyclovir need to take adequate fluids. The risk of impaired renal function increases when used concomitantly with other nephrotoxic drugs.
Take notice that Zovirax influences the ability to drive a vehicle.
The use of the drug during pregnancy did not show the occurrence of developmental malformations in children. However, admission is possible only under the supervision of a physician and if the benefits outweigh the potential risks.
The drug penetrates breast milk; when an average dose of 200 mg is taken five times a day, it is absorbed by a child up to 0.3 mg/day.
It is worth noting that the herpes simplex virus (HSV) does not disappear anywhere. It is a chronic disease that worsens at moments of weakening of the immune system. The virus itself is present in the nerve tissue of the spinal cord's dorsal horns, where it is found even during the period of well-being.
Herpes simplex is a group of viral diseases that are chronic and manifest with frequent relapses. Depending on the localization, several forms of herpes simplex (HS) are distinguished: labial, gluteal, genital, Etc.
Herpetic vesicular dermatitis is a chronic viral disease of a recurrent course with damage to any area of the skin and mucous membranes: lips, face, hands, buttocks, and other parts of the body, except for the genitals.
Anogenital herpetic viral infection (genital herpes) is a chronic recurrent disease with lesions of the skin and mucous membranes of the genital organs.
Depending on this, recurrent disease is rarely isolated - 1-2 times a year, average 3-4 times a year, often more than six times a year.
It is also worth noting the permanent course of the disease, that is, without a recovery period and when relapses occur one after another. The frequency of recurrence directly depends on the suppression of the immune system, namely the production of endogenous interferon. The weaker the immune system, the more frequent relapses will occur.
The disease is often typical and manifests by forming a group of vesicles (bubbles) against a background of slight redness. After opening the bubble, the next stage begins - scalloped erosion, which soon epithelizes and leaves no traces. The duration of the disease without treatment is 14 days. Against the background of vesicles, there is a local increase in the temperature of the body area and soreness.
There are also systemic manifestations of the disease: the occurrence of headaches, inflammation of the esophagus, gastric mucosa, damage to the thyroid gland, as well as the skeletal system in the form of osteochondrosis. Systemic herpes disease can be discussed when there is a layering of rashes and manifestations of systemic genesis. Women may develop dysuria (frequent urination).
If the genitourinary system is damaged, cystitis, urethritis, urethra prostatitis (infection of the prostate), and other diseases are possible. The coincidence in time of herpetic eruptions in the genital area and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system will also indicate a systemic nature.
Relapse of the disease begins with precursors. The precursors are the appearance of paresthesias, in the form of burning, itching, numbness in the area on which grouped bubbles and redness of the area appear the next day. The pathognomonic sign of the disease is the appearance of earlier rashes in the same place.
People with a weakened immune response have frequent relapses of the disease with severe consequences. HSV infection begins to develop systemically. Ulcers appear that do not heal for a long time and are often localized inside the body: the esophagus, stomach, lungs, brain, meninges, large intestine, Etc.
As a result of the lesion, pain occurs when swallowing, shortness of breath, pneumonia, loss of vision is possible with damage to the cornea. With HIV infection in the late stages of HSV, it leads to the appearance of encephalitis and keratitis.
Neonatal herpes is a rare but severe disease that transmits from mother to child. Infection occurs when the child passes through the mother's birth canal and often leads to permanent neurological disability and even the death of the child.
It should also be noted that herpetic eczema is a disseminated skin lesion in children, which is characterized by erosive and ulcerative lesions of the child's skin. More often, children from 6 months to 2 years get sick with herpes. It happens due to the drop in prenatally transmitted antibodies from the mother.
Ways of transmission of the virus: airborne and contact, that is, the child's contact with the affected skin and saliva when kissing. It is one reason why children should not be kissed or eaten from one spoonful.
Lack of treatment leads to 85% mortality in systemic damage and 50% in brain damage.
If you open numerous sites or listen to the advice of experienced people, you can find many options for treating the herpes virus. Since the disease is not new, most have this virus and periodically remind themselves of themselves, and everyone has their methods in the fight against it. Among them are lemon balm lip balms, peppermint oil, licorice root, aloe vera gel, echinacea, lemon juice, and even milk. The primary condition here is not to harm. Of course, all these herbs and substances have beneficial properties, but there are contraindications. There is no evidence base for these substances, which means that no one is responsible for the consequences. Therefore, before you self-medicate, think about it.
Since most people on Earth, namely 70% of the population, according to WHO, are carriers of the herpes virus. The main task of preventing the disease is to strengthen the immune system and prevent complications and their consequences.
Therefore, to achieve good immunity, the patient needs to follow a healthy lifestyle, adhering to a few simple rules:
To refuse from bad habits; Eat well; Healthy sleep; Normalized physical activity; Minimization of stress; Sudden temperature fluctuations - overheating and hypothermia.
Today, there are no drugs that can cure the herpes virus. Antiviral drugs such as Acicvir, Acifur, Acyclovirum, Avirax, Cicloferon, Epsin, Firex, Ocuvir, Soviclor, Virovir, Zirconia, Valacyclovir, Ganciclovir, and other t can help symptomatically and eliminate discomfort. Treatment will be more effective if it is started before the appearance of the vesicles themselves, that is, at the stage of tingling, burning, and itching.
The ineffectiveness of the drug can be observed only in people in a pronounced immunodeficiency state, as well as with frequent courses of admission and the formation of resistant strains. Examining such groups of patients revealed either a low content of viral thymidine kinase or a violation of its structure.